The laser was one of the great inventions of the 20th century, revolutionizing several industries. There are different types of lasers but all of them have in common the emission of a concentrated and coherent beam of light.
Among them, it is possible to find the Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (VCSELs). They are laser diodes that emit light perpendicular to the surface of the chip differently from conventional lasers which emit light from one side of the chip.
SCIL allows large-scale replication of nanopatterns with resolution under 30nm without scattering the light. The use of gratings improve efficiency and the use of SCIL technology helps to obtain them at high speed and low cost which is not possible to reach with other methods such as electron beam lithography.